Похудеть по генотипу.

Если  когда-то  устанавливались общепринятые стандарты о здоровом питании, а несколько позже  сокращались жиры и углеводы, ведущие к повышению весу и хроническим заболеваниям, то сегодня учёные всего мира в области питания работают в новом революционном  направлении. Речь идёт о персонально  подобранном питании, основанном на индивидуальных особенностях организма, согласно человеческому геному.

Все мы различны  по набору генов, по составу ДНК, у каждого из нас свой цвет волос, цвет глаз и цвет кожи. 
Отличия в ДНК не позволяют нам одинаково усваивать пищу. Одни из нас лучше усваивают углеводы, другие — белки, третьи — жиры.
Исследования показали, что еда влияет на функцию генов и метаболизм. Эта отрасль медицины называется НУТРИГЕНОМИКА, т. е. взаимодействие нутриентов  и генов.

А разница в геноме влияет на здоровье и вынужденный выбор питания (НУТРИГЕНЕТИКА). Изменения в ДНК называются полиморфизмом, они зависят от определённых условий  среды  и определённого  рациона  питания.

Помните: » если хранить ружьё,  то оно когда  то  выстрелит»?  Длительные изменения (экспрессия генов) влияют на здоровье.
Каждый из нас рождается с уникальной генетической программой. 
Даже одно яйцевые близнецы с годами претерпевают  некоторые изменения под влиянием окружающей среды и выглядят несколько по-разному.

Например, при диабете сильно варьируется реакция  пациентов на один и тот же препарат. 
У спортсменов наблюдаются не одинаковые достижения и разная опасность травм при одних и тех же тренировках и видах спорта.
Утратила свою функцию » здоровая пища » и не оправдал себя  » Super food » .
Приём витаминов и антиоксидантов без необходимости не только не помогает, но и может навредить.

Исследование  диеты  без глютена показало, что длительное  исключение из рациона  продуктов, содержащих глютен, приводило к изменению стиля питания, снижению физической активности и увеличению жировой массы тела.

Существуют продукты, угнетающие или усиливающие работу генов. Компоненты пищи могут включать или выключать ген посредством изменения химических модификаций.
Мы по-разному реагируем на лекарственные препараты, спорт и, в частности, на диету. Питание влияет на гены.
Например, дефицит холина, метионина и фоливой  кислоты приводит к образованию опухолей, жировой печени, раку груди, нарушениям во время беременности, мужскому бесплодию  и запускает механизм у людей, предрасположенных к сахарному диабету.
Пищевой статус вскормленного  грудным молоком ребёнка зависит от наличия в рационе матери витаминов: А , B1, B2, B6, B12, холина, йода и селениума. Причём проявления нарушений могут наблюдаться во 2 -ой половине жизни.
Омега 3, витамин E, цинк  и рисвератрол  снижают образование интерлейкина (воспалительного фактора) и подавляют его действие.  Витамин  Д  повышает образование антител и стимулирует Т — клетки (защищает организм от заболеваний).

Мы подвержены рекламе и  склонны верить в чудо. А в вопросах похудения в быстродействующее чудо.

Думаю, не стоит объяснять и напоминать, что не поменяв привычки питания  как только прекращаются приём того или иного заменяющего приём пищи коктейля или закупка готовых наборов  блюд для диеты, тут же набираются килограммы и в итоге вес тела даже превышает исходный.

И если это кому — то помогло, не факт, что обязательно поможет и вам.
Нет плана питания идеального для всех!

При одинаковом богатым насыщенными жирами  рационе  у одного из супругов будут повышены триглицериды и холестерин, а у другого нет. И если у мужа избыток соли приведёт к повышению артериального давления, то у ужены оно может не изменяться.
Поскольку у каждого  из нас свой генотип, свой набор генов, все мы не одинаково  реагируем на диету.
План питания должен подбираться персонально, учитывая генетическую информацию, место происхождения, лекарственные препараты и вид спорта.

Известно, что к факторам риска ожирения относятся генетическая предрасположенность и семейная история.
Причина ожирения состоит в комплексе взаимодействия генов и окружающей среды. А взаимодействие различных продуктов с определёнными генами увеличивает вероятность развития диабета, сердечнососудистых заболеваний и рака.

Достижение баланса у  людей, страдающих диабетом — это отдельный разговор. Стандартная диета, не учитывающая  особенности организма, может не только не помочь, но и вывести из баланса.

На уровень глюкозы после еды влияют образ жизни, состав пищи, возраст, ИМТ, наличие висцерального жира, стадия созревания и географическое место выращивания продуктов, а также потребление натрия, наличие  жира в рационе, употребление алкоголя и присутствие клетчатки в меню, причём в течение  последних 24 часов,  а не только в данный приём пищи.

И ещё очень интересный факт!  Уровень сахара  зависит от микробиома, состава кишечной флоры, т. е. от индивидуального состава микробов в нашем кишечнике. И вот этот самый микробиом влияет на многие процессы, в том числе и на вес!

Антибиотики, заменители сахара, длительные перелёты, смена страны, предпочтение пищи животного происхождения, посменная работа или другие нарушения биологических часов, выбор кормить младенца грудью или формулой, — всё влияет на состав и поведение микрофлоры. А микрофлора  в свою очередь влияет на  баланс сахара и набор лишних килограммов.

Ещё Мечников говорил, что кислое молоко продлевает жизнь.

Сегодня известно, что основные причины различия метаболизма состоят в различных генетических  вариациях  микробиома.
Помимо зависимости от ДНК и микробиома,  людям с различным строением тела нужны отличные от других планы питания и тренировок.
Уже существуют компании, предлагающие нутригенетические тесты на основе анализа  слюны. Правительство США уже выпустило отчёт о недостоверности  и опасности таких тестов.
Эти сомнительные тесты не одобрены и не регулируются FDA (Food And Drug Administration), не имеют достаточной доказательной базы и вводят в заблуждение членов семьи. А основной целью является материальная выгода.

Приведённые выше  факты основаны на доказательных исследованиях.
Односторонние   диеты наносят вред!
Пища должна нам подходить!

 

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